Differentiating Cervical Myelopathy From Radiculopathy

Differentiating Cervical Myelopathy From Radiculopathy

Neck pain is a common problem encountered in sports medicine clinics. For the purpose of this review, we will discuss cervical myelopathy and cervical radiculopathy. A more common complaint is axial neck pain, which occurs due to fatigue or injury to the neck musculature and ligaments (Rao, 2002). However, due to the aging population, the incidence of osteoarthritis is increasing. As a result, cervical spondylosis, which is defined as the degenerative osteoarthritis of the spine, can cause a wide variety of pathology (Michael G. Kaiser, 2018). 


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Fragility Fractures: Introduction

Fragility Fractures: Introduction

Osteoporosis is a disease that is the most common bone disease in humans and is characterized by low bone mass and skeletal fragility, which results in an increased risk of fracture. Annually, two million fractures are attributed to osteoporosis, causing more than 432,000 hospital admissions, almost 2.5 million medical office visits, and about 180,000 nursing home admissions in the USA

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ACL Prevention Programs: Can We Do More to Prevent this Catastrophic Injury?

ACL Prevention Programs: Can We Do More to Prevent this Catastrophic Injury?

The ACL, or anterior cruciate ligament, extends from the lateral femoral condyle to the anterior medial aspect of the tibia.  The bands of the ACL act as a biomechanical restraint for rotation and limits anterior translation of the tibia on the femur. It assists with knee stability during running, jumping, cutting or pivoting.  

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A Review on CMC Joint Arthritis

A Review on CMC Joint Arthritis

With the increasing popularity of cell phone use, there is a corresponding increase in thumb-related pathology. Osteoarthritis represents one such overuse syndrome. The second most common location in the hand where patients develop osteoarthritis is their thumb trapeziometacarpal joint (Glyka Martou, 2004).  Unfortunately for those suffering, the CMC joint is involved with flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and opposition of the thumb (David Melville, 2015).


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Is Ketorolac (Toradol) a Safe and Effective Intra-Articular Injection?

Is Ketorolac (Toradol) a Safe and Effective Intra-Articular Injection?

Ketorolac Tromethamine, often referred by its trade name toradol, is an injectable non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). A growing utilization among orthopedists and sports medicine physicians is to use it for intra-articular analgesia and anti-inflammatory. Although generally not well studied, this article seeks to review the evidence of that indication.


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A Review on Reading Wrist X-rays

A Review on Reading Wrist X-rays

Wrist injuries are a common part of an orthopedic practice. Patients frequently present for evaluation after a slip and fall injury and the development of acute wrist pain. Radiographs are part of the initial evaluation for all acute wrist injuries. When interpreting wrist x-rays, radiologists will discuss multiple different angles and measurements that correlate with various clinical conditions.

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Persistent Post-concussive Symptoms (PPCS): Treatment strategies

Persistent Post-concussive Symptoms (PPCS): Treatment strategies

After covering introduction and imaging of persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS), also termed  post-concussion syndrome, we continue moving forward to examine treatment strategies.  The recommendations have been evolving over time and treatment for both acute and persistent concussive symptoms and has changed substantially from original strategies.

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Regenerative Medicine, Patellar Chondromalacia and Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Regenerative Medicine, Patellar Chondromalacia and Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Patellar chondromalacia represents a degenerative process of the hyaline cartilage coating the posterior patella as it articulates with hyaline cartilage of the femoral groove. It is often termed patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFP) or runner's knee. The term patellofemoral pain syndrome generally refers to anterior knee pain and is more of a “catch all” term that is not specific to chondromalacia, however the terms are frequently used interchangeably.


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Dr Rubin’s Top Ten Physical Exam Techniques Every Sports Medicine Physician Should Know

Dr Rubin’s Top Ten Physical Exam Techniques Every Sports Medicine Physician Should Know

Some may argue that the art of the physical exam is dying. That is not true with musculoskeletal based specialties where the physical exam is critical. One of the key components of the musculoskeletal exam are the special tests. It is easy to get lost in the weeds and sports medicine providers can often be buried under the mountain of available special tests.

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