january 2020 journal roundup

January 2020 Sports Medicine Journal Roundup

The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Jan 2020)

  • With nonoperative managemen, roughly 1/3rd under 40 had recurrent instability with a mean follow up of 11 years

  • In particular, patients under 15 and up to 20 years of age had a nearly 50% chance of recurrent instability events, up to 3 total events

  • These patients were also more likely to require surgery

  • Use of a patellar tendon graft reduced the risk of graft rupture but was associated with an increased risk of injury to the contralateral ACL

  • OC formulations with high progestin-to-estrogen ratios may benefit female athletes by reducing their ACL injury risk by decreasing the effects of relaxin on the ACL.

  • Progression to arthroplasty demonstrated significant differences among treatment groups at a mean of 74 months (nonoperative, 4/15; partial meniscectomy, 9/15; meniscal repair, 0/15; P = .0003).

  • The meniscus root repair group had significantly less arthritic progression, as measured by change in K-L grade from pre- to postoperatively (nonoperative, 1.0; partial meniscectomy, 1.1; meniscal repair, 0.1; P = .001).

  • Arthroscopic microfracture showed good functional outcomes and improved quality of life with maintenance of satisfactory outcomes at a mean follow-up of 6.7 years.

  • Therefore, arthroscopic microfracture seems to be reliable as a first-line treatment for osteochondral lesions of the talus at an intermediate-term follow-up.

  • Evidence, although limited, suggests the use of pitch counts to decrease injury rates and pain in Little League and high school baseball pitchers.

  • However, further research must be performed to determine the appropriate number of pitches (or throws) for players of different ages.

  • This systematic review reported conflicting evidence regarding the use of pitch counts in college and professional baseball.

British Journal of Sports Medicine (Jan Issue 54-1, Jan Issue 54-2)

  • The aim of this paper is to propose concrete manifestations of each type of child maltreatment in sport. We aim to help practitioners better understand and researchers better measure this problem.

  • The purpose of this narrative review is to summarise the use and management of GCs in sport illustrating several innovative programmes by sport leagues and federations.

  • The strongest prognostic factors for improvement were (1) no previous meniscal surgery on index knee and (2) more severe preoperative knee-related symptoms.

  • Despite combining a large number of preoperative factors presumed clinically relevant, change in patient-reported outcome 1 year following meniscal surgery was not predictable.

  • The vast majority of the badminton related eye injuries occurred among doubles players and were instigated by the injured person’s partner.

  • Non-penetrating injury was more frequent; penetrating injury was usually more serious.

  • We recommend that badminton players use protective eyewear and receive safety education and professional coaching/instruction on techniques to protect against serious eye injuries.

  • 112 of 567 athletes (19.8%) reported a total of 142 injuries

  • Injury incidence rate (IR) of 20.9 per 1000 athlete days

  • There is moderate to low-quality evidence that high-dose antioxidant supplementation does not result in a clinically relevant reduction of muscle soreness after exercise of up to 6 hours or at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exercise.

  • There is no evidence available on subjective recovery and only limited evidence on the adverse effects of taking antioxidant supplements.

  • Our findings indicate that concussion in collegiate football is managed more conservatively than 15 years ago.

  • These changes in clinical management appear to have reduced the risk of repetitive concussion during the critical period of cerebral vulnerability after sport-related concussion (SRC).

Sports Medicine (Januray 2020)

  • The objective of this review is to examine the impact of dietary supplements on metabolic and physiological adaptations to endurance training.

  • The purpose of this manuscript is to review the effects of BFR exercise on vascular function, and to provide relevant insights for training practice as well as future directions for research.

  • Reducing nordic hamstring exercises (NHE) volume prescription does not negatively affect adaptations in eccentric strength and muscle architecture when compared with high dose interventions.

  • These findings suggest that lower volumes of NHE may be more appropriate for athletes, with an aim to increase intervention compliance, potentially reducing the risk of hamstring strain.

Sports Health Journal (January / February 2020)

  • Among studies, the mean percentage of improvement identified was 11.3% for force generation, 5.7% for coordination, 5.2% for posture, and 5.2% for balance.

  • The lowest mean percentage improvement was in speed (2.2%).

  • Endurance was not significantly affected by any of the programs.

  • Specialization and exceeding 8 months per year in a single sport was associated with overuse injury in volleyball, which is one of the most popular youth sports for female athletes.

  • Specialization was not associated with overuse injury in basketball or soccer athletes.

  • Female basketball athletes were nearly 4 times more likely to report a history of overuse injury compared with male basketball athletes.

  • The sex of a youth athlete and the sport that he or she plays may influence the risk of overuse injury associated with sport specialization.

  • Of the contacted offices that provided information on both platelet rich plasma (PRP) and stem cell (SC) availability (n = 1325), 268 (20.2%) offered both treatments, 550 (41.5%) offered only PRP injections, 20 (1.5%) offered only SC injections, and 487 (36.8%) did not offer either treatment.

  • The mean ± SD cost of a PRP injection was $707 ± $388 (range, $175-$4973), and the mean cost of an SC injection was $2728 ± $1584 (range, $300-$12,000).

  • Practices that offered PRP injections were located in areas with higher median household income (P = 0.047). Variables associated with higher cost of PRP injections included city population (P < 0.001) and median income of residents (P < 0.001).

Current Sports Medicine Reports (January 2020)

  • This article addresses the need to incorporate the thoracic spine when analyzing the entire kinetic chain.

  • Clinical pearls regarding thoracic neuromuscular control and rehabilitation were explored, as well as a review of recent literature.

  • Further investigation of thoracic spine therapeutic interventions should be considered when treating overhead athletes.