May 2019 Journal Review Roundup

May 2019 Primary Care Sports Medicine Journal Roundup

The American Journal of Sports Medicine (May 2019)

  • Artificial turf is an important risk factor for specific knee ligament injuries in NCAA football.

  • Injury rates for PCL tears were significantly increased during competitions played on artificial turf as compared with natural grass.

  • Lower NCAA divisions (II and III) also showed higher rates of ACL injuries during competitions on artificial turf versus natural grass.

  • The authors found no difference in short-term effectiveness in combining patient education with knee-focused exercise, hip-focused exercise, or free training for patients with PFP

  • Primary arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization in overhead athletes is associated with a low rate of recurrent stabilization surgery.

  • Return to overhead athletics at short-term follow-up is lower than that previously reported for the general athletic population.

  • Hip arthroscopy for all levels of runners is associated with a significant increase in PROs and a low risk of complications.

  • The rate of return to running is moderately high after hip arthroscopy at midterm follow-up.

  • Hip arthroscopy may be considered for runners presenting with symptoms of femoroacetabular impingement that fail nonoperative treatments.

  • Of the pooled data, patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart showed the highest rate of RTS, while patients who underwent open Latarjet showed the shortest time to RTS.

  • Return to preinjury level was highest in the arthroscopic Bankart group and lowest in the arthroscopic Latarjet group.

  • Physicians can utilize these data to set expectations for their patient-athletes regarding RTS after anterior shoulder stabilization procedures.

British Journal of Sports Medicine (May 2019 Vol 9, May 2019 Vol 10)

cardiorespiratory fitness and health
  • low energy availability measured using self-report questionnaires is strongly associated with many health and performance consequences proposed by the relative energy deficiency in sport

  • High intensity interval training and moderate intensity continuous training both resulted in reduced body fat percentage.

  • Interval training provided 28.5% greater reductions in total absolutely fat mass (kg)

  • Major (potentially ‘hidden’) clinical comorbidities increased substantially after elective arthroscopic hip surgery when compared with preoperative status.

  • Cases of mental health disorders rose 84%, chronic pain diagnoses increased 166%, substance abuse disorders rose 57%, cardiovascular disorders rose by 71%, metabolic syndrome cases rose 85.9%, systemic arthropathy rose 132% and sleep disorders rose 111%

  • These comorbidities appear to have been overlooked in major studies evaluating the benefits and risks of arthroscopic hip surgery.

Sports Medicine (May 2019)

  • Equivocal-to-positive results

  • The effect size was small (0.20), and confidence intervals for each individual study crossed the line of null effect

  • The results may be relevant to high-level athletes, in which competitive outcomes are decided by small margins

  • Aerobic or mind–body exercise may be the best for pain and function improvements.

  • Strengthening and flexibility/skill exercises may be used for multiple outcomes.

  • Mixed exercise is the least effective and the reason for this merits further investigation.

Sports Health Journal (May/ June 2019)

  • Hip arthroscopy can lead to significant improvement in generic and hip-specific health-related quality of life outcomes at 12 to 24 months postoperatively in patients with FAI who do not have advanced hip osteoarthritis.

  • There was a significant difference before and after implementation of the valgus control instruction program with regard to pain (49.18% ↓, P = 0.000), single-leg hop test (24.62% ↑, P = 0.000), triple-hop test (23.75% ↑, P = 0.000), crossover hop test (12.88% ↑, P = 0.000), single-leg 6-m timed hop test (7.43% ↓, P = 0.000), knee dynamic valgus angle (59.48% ↓, P = 0.000), peak abductor to adductor eccentric torque ratio (14.60% ↑, P = 0.000), peak external (59.73% ↑, P = 0.023) and internal rotator (15.45% ↑, P = 0.028) eccentric torques, and the ratio of peak external to internal rotator eccentric torque (40.90% ↑, P = 0.000) (P < 0.05).

  • Patellofemoral pain syndrome rehabilitation and prevention programs should consider valgus control instruction exercises to decrease pain, improve strength, and increase athletes’ functional performance.

  • There are limited indications of a beneficial impact of compression garments with improvements in ankle circumference measurements.

  • No ergogenic impact was detected.