May 2019 Primary Care Sports Medicine Journal Roundup
The American Journal of Sports Medicine (May 2019)
Loughran, G. J., Vulpis, C. T., Murphy, et al (2019). Incidence of Knee Injuries on Artificial Turf Versus Natural Grass in National Collegiate Athletic Association American Football: 2004-2005 Through 2013-2014 Seasons. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(6), 1294–1301. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546519833925
Artificial turf is an important risk factor for specific knee ligament injuries in NCAA football.
Injury rates for PCL tears were significantly increased during competitions played on artificial turf as compared with natural grass.
Lower NCAA divisions (II and III) also showed higher rates of ACL injuries during competitions on artificial turf versus natural grass.
The authors found no difference in short-term effectiveness in combining patient education with knee-focused exercise, hip-focused exercise, or free training for patients with PFP
Primary arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization in overhead athletes is associated with a low rate of recurrent stabilization surgery.
Return to overhead athletics at short-term follow-up is lower than that previously reported for the general athletic population.
Hip arthroscopy for all levels of runners is associated with a significant increase in PROs and a low risk of complications.
The rate of return to running is moderately high after hip arthroscopy at midterm follow-up.
Hip arthroscopy may be considered for runners presenting with symptoms of femoroacetabular impingement that fail nonoperative treatments.
Of the pooled data, patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart showed the highest rate of RTS, while patients who underwent open Latarjet showed the shortest time to RTS.
Return to preinjury level was highest in the arthroscopic Bankart group and lowest in the arthroscopic Latarjet group.
Physicians can utilize these data to set expectations for their patient-athletes regarding RTS after anterior shoulder stabilization procedures.
low energy availability measured using self-report questionnaires is strongly associated with many health and performance consequences proposed by the relative energy deficiency in sport
High intensity interval training and moderate intensity continuous training both resulted in reduced body fat percentage.
Interval training provided 28.5% greater reductions in total absolutely fat mass (kg)
Major (potentially ‘hidden’) clinical comorbidities increased substantially after elective arthroscopic hip surgery when compared with preoperative status.
Cases of mental health disorders rose 84%, chronic pain diagnoses increased 166%, substance abuse disorders rose 57%, cardiovascular disorders rose by 71%, metabolic syndrome cases rose 85.9%, systemic arthropathy rose 132% and sleep disorders rose 111%
These comorbidities appear to have been overlooked in major studies evaluating the benefits and risks of arthroscopic hip surgery.
Sports Medicine (May 2019)
The effect size was small (0.20), and confidence intervals for each individual study crossed the line of null effect
The results may be relevant to high-level athletes, in which competitive outcomes are decided by small margins
Aerobic or mind–body exercise may be the best for pain and function improvements.
Strengthening and flexibility/skill exercises may be used for multiple outcomes.
Mixed exercise is the least effective and the reason for this merits further investigation.
Sports Health Journal (May/ June 2019)
Hip arthroscopy can lead to significant improvement in generic and hip-specific health-related quality of life outcomes at 12 to 24 months postoperatively in patients with FAI who do not have advanced hip osteoarthritis.
There was a significant difference before and after implementation of the valgus control instruction program with regard to pain (49.18% ↓, P = 0.000), single-leg hop test (24.62% ↑, P = 0.000), triple-hop test (23.75% ↑, P = 0.000), crossover hop test (12.88% ↑, P = 0.000), single-leg 6-m timed hop test (7.43% ↓, P = 0.000), knee dynamic valgus angle (59.48% ↓, P = 0.000), peak abductor to adductor eccentric torque ratio (14.60% ↑, P = 0.000), peak external (59.73% ↑, P = 0.023) and internal rotator (15.45% ↑, P = 0.028) eccentric torques, and the ratio of peak external to internal rotator eccentric torque (40.90% ↑, P = 0.000) (P < 0.05).
Patellofemoral pain syndrome rehabilitation and prevention programs should consider valgus control instruction exercises to decrease pain, improve strength, and increase athletes’ functional performance.
There are limited indications of a beneficial impact of compression garments with improvements in ankle circumference measurements.
No ergogenic impact was detected.